Glossary

Here you will find definitions of words that have been highlighted in bold throughout the website.

Adolescents: An adolescent is a young man or woman and is the physical and psychological change between puberty and legal adulthood.

Amino acids: Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are made of the elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.  They come in simple forms (sugars) and complex forms (starch).

Components: Components are elements or parts of a larger whole, e.g. components of a chicken curry consist of chicken, sauce, rice.

Food sources: In which food, you can find the desired nutrient, e.g. a food source of carbohydrates is pasta.

Fructose: Naturally occurring sugar found in fruit.

Glucose: The main source of energy for the body and the only used by brain cells. Glucose is produced when carbohydrates are digested or metabolized. Glucose is sometimes referred to as dextrose. Starch is comprised of long chains of glucose. Glucose makeup exactly half of the sugar in sucrose and nearly half of the sugar in high fructose corn syrup.

High-biological value (HBV): This is when a protein contains the essential amino acids in the right proportion required by humans.

Lactose: The sugar found naturally in milk, it is a disaccharide composed of one galactose unit and one glucose unit; sometimes called milk sugar.

Low-biological value (LBV): This is when a protein contains less than the required amount of amino acids that are required by the human body.

Macronutrients: These are a type of food that is required in a large amount in the body and consist of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

Micronutrients: These are a type of chemical substance or element that is required in trace amounts in the body, for the normal growth and development of living organisms.

Starch carbohydrates: These are complex carbohydrates containing three or more sugars (polysaccharides).

Sucrose: A disaccharide or double sugar made of equal parts of glucose and fructose. Known as table or white sugar, sucrose is found naturally in fruits and vegetables. Appearing most abundantly in sugar cane and sugar beets, sucrose comes from these foods for commercial use.

 Sugar carbohydrates: These are simple carbohydrates containing one or more sugars (monosaccharides – one sugar, disaccharides – two sugars).

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