All keywords that you find on the site, can be found in the list below with their definitions.  They are in alphabetical order for ease.

Key word Definition
Aeration Is when air is trapped in a mixture.
Aerobic Means with oxygen.
Al dente Means ‘firm to the bite’, a description of the texture of correctly cooked pasta.
Allergen Is a substance that may cause an allergic reaction.
Ambient Refers to temperatures at 17°C to 20°C; also referred to as room temperature.
Amino acids Are the basic components of all proteins.
Amylopectin Produces a clear gel when it thickens and has the same thickness hot or cold.
Amylose Causes sauces to thicken, turn cloudy when cooked and get even thicker as they cool.
Anaerobic Means without oxygen.
Analyse Means to find out and discuss results.
Analysis Means breaking down the results of a test and explaining them in more detail.
Anaphylactic shock Is a serious condition in which a person develops swelling in their throat and mouth, making it difficult to speak or breathe.
Angina Is when the blood supply to the heart is restricted.
Anti-bacterial spray Is a clear spray that kills 99.9% of bacteria; it should be used after surfaces have been wiped with hot, soapy water.
Antioxidants Are vitamins A, C and E, which protect the cells from harmful substances.
Arteries Are large blood vessels that take blood away from the heart.
Ascorbic acid Is another word for vitamin C.
Au gratin Refers to a dish sprinkled with breadcrumbs or cheese and breadcrumbs, browned under the grill.
Bacteria Are single-celled micro-organisms; some types of bacteria can cause food poisoning.
Baking powder Is a chemical raising agent that produces carbon dioxide.
Barbecue Means to cook food over a grill over burning charcoal.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Is how many kilocalories you need to stay alive for 24 hours when warm and resting.
Batter Is a mixture of flour, milk or water, and usually an egg.
Beating A liquid or mixture adds air.
Beri beri Is a lack of vitamin B1.
‘Best before’ date Means that food is at its best quality before this date, although – with the exception of eggs – it may safely be eaten after this date.
Beta-carotene Is vitamin A from plant sources.
Beurre manie Is a paste made from equal quantities of butter and flour mixed together, which is added to liquids to thicken them.
Bicarbonate of soda Is a chemical raising agent that produces carbon dioxide.
Bind Means to bring the ingredients in a mixture together using a binding ingredient.
Biological catalysts Are enzymes, which speed up reactions.
Blanching Means immersing fruits or vegetables in boiling water for a short period of time and then cooling rapidly.  Blanching stops enzyme activity and helps to retain vitamins.
Blender Is a piece of equipment with sharp blades that rotate to cut up food and reduce it to a pulp.
Blood clot Is when blood becomes a solid.
Blood sugar level Refers to the amount of sugar in your blood.
Blood vessels Are the capillaries, veins and arteries.
Body mass index (BMI) Is an index of your weight in relation to your height.  It is used to classify people into four groups – underweight, healthy, overweight and obese.
Boiling Is a method of cooking where foods are cooked in boiling water.
Bread Is a combination of flour, yeast, sugar, salt and liquid, which is made into a dough.
Bread knife Is a large knife with a serrated blade, used to slice bread, cakes and pastries.
British lion scheme Is a scheme to vaccinate hens against salmonella and to label eggs with a lion and a ‘best before’ date.
Brunch Is a combined breakfast-lunch meal.
Brunoise Means cutting vegetables into tiny dice from julienne strips.
Campylobacter Is a type of bacteria and is the main cause of food poisoning in the UK.
Cancer of the bowel Is uncontrolled growth of cells in the large intestine.
Caramelisation Is the process of changing the colour of sugar from white to brown when heated.
Carbon footprint Is a measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced.
Cardiovascular disease Refers to diseases of the heart and blood vessels.
Carriers (Of pathogenic bacteria) are people who carry these bacteria, but show no symptoms.
Carving knife Is a long thin-bladed knife used to carve both cooked meats and cold meats.
Casserole Refers to food that is completely covered in liquid, then cooked in the oven.
Cazeula Is a glazed terracotta dish used to make Spanish stews.
Chemical raising agents Are raising agents that produce carbon dioxide when they are heated with a liquid.
Cholesterol Is a fatty substance found in the blood; it is essential for humans but can be harmful.
Cholesterol-lowering spreads Are low-fat spreads that help to keep cholesterol levels low.
Chorleywood bread process Is the name of the bread-making process using in large bakeries.
Choux pastry Is a light, crisp, hollow pastry used to make profiteroles, éclairs and gougères.
Coagulate Is when protein sets, either when heated, or in acidic conditions.
Coagulation Is a change in the structure of protein, when proteins set, brought about by heat or acids.  This change is irreversible.
Coat Means to add another ingredient to create an attractive finish; or to create a protective layer on a food when cooking.
Coeliac Is a person suffering from coeliac disease.
Coeliac disease Is an auto-immune disease; an sensitivity of gluten.
Cold spots Can be found in foods reheated in the microwave, if they are not stirred or turned during the reheating process.
Conduction Is when heat travels through solid materials such as metals and food.
Connective tissue Gives support and structure to body tissues.
Contaminated Is when an unwanted substance is transferred onto another, for example if someone sneezes onto food.
Convection Is when heat travels through air or water.
Convection current Is the movement of heat in water or in the air.
Cooking with fat Uses the convection currents in hot oil or fat to cook food.
Cooking with water Uses the convection currents in water to cook food.
Cook’s knife Is a large general purpose knife with a deep blade, used for cutting, chopping, slicing and dicing.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) Is a build-up of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries.
Costing Means working out the cost of the ingredients to make your dishes using software packages or manually with a calculator and a supermarket website.
Creaming Fat and sugar together adds air.
Cross-contamination Means bacteria spreading onto food from another place, for example hands, work surfaces, utensils.
Crush Means to crush into tiny pieces with another implement.
Cuisine Is a style of food characteristic to a particular country or region.
Culture Means our laws, morals, customs and habits.
Curdling Is when milk denatures. It develops a slightly lumpy appearance because all the protein in the milk has clumped together.
Defrosted Means when frozen food has been removed from the freezer and left to stand in the fridge, until all ice crystals have melted.
Deglazing Is to loosen the browned juices on the bottom of the pan by adding a liquid to the hot pan and stirring while the liquid is boiling.
Dehydration Is a lack of water.
Demonstrating technical skills Means demonstrating skills which you may use when making the final dishes.
Denature Is when protein changes shape, either when heated, agitated or in acidic conditions.
Denaturation May be permanent change to protein, which occurs when protein is heated and there is a change in its chemical structure or it may temporary e.g. When egg white foam stands and collapses back to its liquid state.
De-skin Means to remove the skin by either putting the fruit or vegetable into boiling water or, for peppers, placing on direct heat.
De-seed Means to remove seeds before using.
Developed world Refers to nations of the world that are considered more economically and technologically advanced, such as Europe, USA, Japan and Australia.
Developing world Refers to nations of the world that are less economically and technologically advanced, such as parts of Africa and Asia.
Dextrinisation Is when dry heat turns a starch brown.
Diabetes Is a condition when the body’s sugar levels cannot be controlled properly.
Dietary diary Is a record of all the food and drink consumed over a set period of time.
Digestive system Refers to the parts of the body where food is broken down to provide nutrients.
Disinfect Means to kill bacteria.
Disposable income Is what money is left over for saving or spending after taxes are subtracted from income.
Diverticular disease Is a condition where small bulges appear in the large intestine.
Double sugars or disaccharides Two single units of sugar joined together (e.g. Sucrose).
Dry-frying Refers to heating food on a low heat without any fat or oil.
Dry heat Uses convection currents or radiation to cook food.
Durum wheat Is a yellowy, to wheat that is grown especially for making pasta.
E. Coil Is a type of food poisoning bacteria often associated with undercooked meat.
Electromagnetic rays Are produced inside a microwave oven and will heat food up by causing water molecules to vibrate.
Elevenses Is an old-fashioned name for a mid-morning snack.
Emulsification Is the process of using an emulsifier (such as egg yolk) to stabilise an insoluble mixture.
Emulsifier Is a substance that will allow two immiscible liquids (substances that do not’ to be held together.
Emulsion Is a mixture of two liquids, made by tiny drops of one liquid spreading evenly through a second liquid.
Energy-dense foods Are those which contain a high number of g calories per gram (for example biscuits, chocolate).
Enriched foods Are foods that have micronutrients added to them to replace those lost during processing.
Environment Refers to the air, water and land in or on which people, animals and plants live.
Enzymes Are biological catalysts that speed up reactions.
Enzymic browning Is when enzymes in food react with oxygen in the air to cause the food to turn brown.
Epithelium Contains scent receptors and can identify different smells.
Essential amino acids Are amino acids that cannot be made by the body, they must come from food.
Essential fatty acids Are required for development and cannot be made by the body.
Evaluation Is an overview of what went well and what went wrong, and writing up what was learnt.
Extraction rate Is the percentage of flour by weight that is taken from the whole grain to make flour.
Faecal contamination Means contaminated with solid waste from humans or animals.
Family budget Is the family’s income and expenditure of money over a specified time.
Fat-soluble vitamins Are vitamins A, D, E, and K which dissolve in fat.
Fat spread Is a fatty yellow spread for bread, which contains no more than 60 per cent fat.
Ferment Is when yeasts reproduce by feeding on sugar, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.
Fermentation Is the process in which yeast produces the gas carbon dioxide.
Fertilisers Are chemicals that enhance the soil by introducing nutrients.
Filleting knife Is a thin, flexible, narrow-bladed knife used to fillet fish.
Fish fillet Is a cut of fish that is free from bone.
Flavour Is the combined sense of taste, mouthfeel and aroma.
Fluoride toothpaste Is a type of toothpaste that helps to strengthen the enamel on your teeth to prevent decay.
Folding Layers into a dough adds air between the layers.
Food allergy Is an allergic reaction to a specific food.
Food security Is when all people, at all times, have access to enough safe and nutritious food for them to lead grate vegetables.
Food processor Is a piece of equipment with various attachments that can prepare a variety of foods, such as slice and healthy life.
Food spoilage Is when food loses quality and becomes inedible.
Food tables Refers to printed or computer information on nutrients in foods.
Fortified Refers to food that has vitamins and minerals added to improve its nutritional value.
Fortification Means adding micronutrients to food that were usually not originally in the food.
Fossil fuels Are coal, oil or natural gas, formed in the earth from plant or animal remains.
Free radicals Are found inside the body and attack healthy cells, which can cause heart disease or cancer.
Free-range production Is a method of farming where the animals can have access to outdoor space, rather than being restricted to an enclosure for 24 hours each day.
Free sugars Are sugars that are added to food (they are not part of the cell wall of a plant).
Freezer burn Is the excessive dehydration and oxidation on the surface of food while stored in the freezer. It is usually caused by inadequate packaging.
Garnishes Are decorations on savoury food.
Gelatinisation Is the process in which moist heat is applied to starch grains, which swell, increase in size and then break open, releasing amylose, which thickens the mixture around boiling point. Stirring will prevent lumps forming.
Gelation Is when a mixture is thickened by starch, and sets on chilling.
Genetically modified Refers to foods produced from plants or animals that have had their genetic information changed by scientists.
Global warming Is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth’s atmosphere caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide and other chemicals in the atmosphere.
Glucose and galactose Are sugars (single sugars or monosaccharides) found in milk.
Gluten-free Means without wheat, rye, barley and sometimes oats.
Grading tests Are used to produce a ranking, rating and profiling of a product.
Grate Means to make coarse or fine threads by repeatedly rubbing over one of the sides of a grater.
Greenhouses gases Are gases that trap heat in the atmosphere; this can cause climate change.
Growth spurt Is a rapid increase in height.
Haem iron Is iron from animal sources.
Haemoglobin Is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen around the body.
Healthy diet Is a diet low in fat, salt and sugar, and high in fibre.
Heart attack Is when the blood supply to the heart is suddenly cut off.
Heart palpitations Are when your heart beats suddenly become more noticeable.
Heat stroke Is an uncontrolled increase in body temperature.
Hedonic ranking Is a preference test, which finds out whether people like or dislike a product.
Hedonic scale Is a rating scale (scores) for testing/comparing food samples.
Herbicides Are chemicals that destroy weeds.
Hereditary Is a condition passed down from parents to their children.
High biological value protein Is protein that contains all of the essential amino acids.
High blood cholesterol Is a high level of cholesterol in the blood.
High blood pressure Is a higher than normal force of blood pushing against the arteries.
High-risk foods Are ready to eat moist foods, near-neutral and of high in protein; these are most likely to support the growth.
Homogenisation Is the process of forcing the milk at high pressure through small holes to stop the layer of cream separating out.
Hydration Is the supply of water required to maintain the correct amount of fluid in the body.
Hydrogenation Is the process in which vegetable oils are ‘hardened’ to make them solid at room temperature.
Immiscible Means not able to be mixed or blended together. Immiscible liquids which are shaken together will eventually separate in to layers. Oil and water are immiscible.
Immune system Refers to the parts of your body and processes that protect against disease.
Imported Means brought in from a foreign country.
Infuse Means to flavour liquid with aromatic ingredients by slowly heating to boiling point and then allowing it to cool. The flavoured liquid is then called an infusion.
Infused liquids Are liquids with seasoning, spice, herbs or wine added.
Insoluble fibre Is dietary fibre that helps to prevent constipation.
Insulated cold bag Is a padded bag used with ice packs to keep food cold.
Intensive farming Is a farming system that aims to produce as much yield as possible, usually with the use of chemicals and in a restricted space.
Intestines Are part of the digestive system.
Invisible fat Is fat that is not clearly seen in food.
Iron deficiency Anaemia is caused by a lack of iron.
Jardinière Means cutting vegetables into batons.
Julienne Means cutting vegetables into matchstick strips.
Kilocalorie Is a unit used to measure the energy in food.
Knead Means to manipulate dough by pushing it across a work surface and pulling it back. This is essential to stretch the gluten.
Knock back Means to knead out the carbon dioxide in risen dough to remove large air pockets to ensure an even texture.
Kwashiorkor Is a type of malnutrition linked to a lack of protein and energy.
Kosher Refers to food that is allowed to be eaten because it is considered clean (in Judaism).
Lactase Is the enzyme that digests lactose.
Lactic acid Is formed during the cheese -making process, when lactose is converted into lactic acid.
Lacto-ovo vegetarians Are vegetarians who eat no fish, meat and meat products, but eat eggs and dairy foods.
Lacto-vegetarians Are vegetarians who eat no fish, meat, meat products or eggs, but eat dairy foods.
Lactose Is the sugar naturally found in milk.
Lactose intolerance Means you cannot digest lactose.
Layer Means to make up a dish with differing ingredients one on top of another.
Lecithin Is a natural emulsifier found in egg yolk.
Listeria Is a type of food poisoning bacteria that can multiply at fridge temperatures.
Low biological value protein Is protein that lacks one or more essential amino acid.
Low-energy foods Are foods low in energy and high in water.
Low-fat spread Is a yellow fat spread for bread, which contains no more than 40 per cent fat.
Macedoine Means cutting vegetables into medium dice.
Magnetron Is a device found inside a microwave oven, which produces electromagnetic rays.
Mandatory Means required by law.
Margarine Is a butter substitute, usually made from vegetable oils/fats; it must contain 80 per cent fat.
Marinade Is a highly flavoured liquid, which is used to give flavour, keep food moist and assist in tenderising foods. The liquid can be acidic or a salty solution.
Marinating Is the process of soaking meat or vegetables in a strongly flavoured liquid before cooking, to help develop the flavour, tenderise and in some instances colour the food before it is cooked.
Marketing Refers to identifying consumers’ needs and wants and using that information to supply consumers with products that match their needs and wants.
Mash Means to reduce to a soft mass by using a masher.
Mechanical raising agents Are air and steam.
Menopause Is when a woman’s periods (menstruation) stop, around the age of 50 years.
Menstruation Is when a woman has a monthly period.
Microgram Is the smallest unit of measurement used to measure micronutrients.
Micronutrients Are the nutrients needed in small amounts. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients.
Micro-organisms Are microscopic, tiny organisms; these include yeasts, moulds and bacteria.
Microwave oven Is a piece of equipment that heats food, cooks food, defrosts food and cooks frozen or fresh ready meals.
Milling Is the process that separates the different parts of the grain.
Mis en place Means preparation before starting to cook.
Mix Means to combine two or more ingredients together to become one.
Mixer Is a machine that primarily whisks and beats.
Modified atmosphere Refers to packaging that uses a combination of gases (nitrogen or carbon dioxide) to increase the shelf life.
Modify recipes Means to change ingredients or cooking methods to improve a recipe.
Monosodium glutamate Is a flavour enhancer, which is a type of food additive.
Moulds Are tiny fungi, which produce thread-like filaments. Moulds are a type of micro-organism.  They are used in food to make cheeses, cured sausages and soya sauce.
Mould spores Are spores produced by moulds to help the mould spread further.
Mouthfeel Is the way a particular type of food feels in the mouth.
Night blindness Is caused by a lack of vitamin A, and means you are unable to see well in dim light.
Non-haem iron Is iron from vegetable or plant sources.
Nutritional analysis Means finding out the nutrients and energy in a recipe, meal or diet.
Nutritional modification Means adding ingredients to foods that may improve health.
Obesity Is being very overweight.
Oily fish Refers to fish in which the oil is distributed throughout the body of the fish.
Olfactory receptors Send messages to the brain about the smells.
Olfactory system Is the body’s ‘smell device’ and enables you to detect aromas and smells.
Omega 3 fatty acids Are polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential for good health.
Organic food Refers to food where at least 95 per cent of the ingredients must come from organically produced plants and animals.
Osteoporosis Is a condition in adults, where a loss of calcium from bones makes them weak and more likely to break.
Over-nutrition Is an oversupply of a nutrient or nutrients.
Oxidation Is the loss of water-soluble vitamins on exposure to heat/air.
Paellera Is a large round pan with shallow sides used to cook paella.
Paring knife/vegetable knife Is a small multi-purpose knife, mainly used for slicing and dicing.
Pasteurisation Is the process of prolonging the keeping quality of products such as milk by heating to 72°C for 15 seconds to destroy harmful bacteria.
Pasteurised Refers to food that has been heat-treated to kill most micro-organisms.
Peak bone mass Is when bones have reached their maximum density by storing nutrients such as calcium.
Peel Means to remove thinly the skin of fruits and vegetables using a peeler.
Peer pressure Is a feeling that you must do the same things as other people of your age in order to fit in or be liked and accepted.
Pernicious anaemia Is a lack of vitamin B12.
Pester power Is when children pester adults to buy products.
Pesticides Are chemicals that destroy that are harmful to the crops.
Physical activity level (PAL) Is the amount of physical activity you do each day, for example sitting, standing, running and exercise.
Plaque Is a mixture of bacteria on teeth and the sticky substances produced by them.
Plasticity Is the ability of a solid fat to soften over a range of temperatures.
Poaching Is a method of cooking where food is cooked in a liquid that is just below boiling point.
Portion size Refers to the amount of a food that is recommended for one person to eat in one sitting.
Preference test Is used to find out if a product is acceptable to the consumer.
Preservatives Are chemicals added to food to increase the shelf life.
Price comparison sites Are websites that compare supermarket food prices.
Primary processing Refers to the process of changing raw food materials into food that can be eaten immediately or processed further into other food products.
Protein alternatives Are products which have been developed for use in food preparation as an alternative to animal protein.
Protein complementation Is combining LBV proteins foods to form a HBV protein meal.
Proteolytic enzymes Are enzymes that break down the muscle fibres in meat, making it much more tender.
Proving Is the last rising of the bread dough in its final shape before it is baked.
Radiation Is when heat rays directly heat and cook food.
Raising agent Is an ingredient or process that incorporates a gas into a mixture to lighten it; it is added to sweet or savoury mixtures, such as cakes, scones and breads, to make them rise.
Ranking Means putting samples in order of preference (for example the one you like best comes first).
Ranking tests Are used to measure the strength of a specific sensory property in a number of samples.
Rationed Refers to the controlled distribution of scarce resources (food).
Rating test Allows people to rate the extent to which they either like or dislike one aspect in a number of similar food products or to rate different aspects of one food product.
Recipe modifications Means changes to a recipe to meet a (nutritional or other) need.
Reduction Is the process of simmering a liquid over heat until it thickens. It is also the name of the concentrated liquid that forms during this process.
Retinol Is vitamin A from animal sources.
Riboflavin Is vitamin B2.
Rickets Is a condition found in children, where a lack of vitamin D and calcium in the diet causes the bones to soften.
Rind Is the outside skin of bacon and gammon. Roll means to spread out or flatten.
Rubbing In fat into flour adds air.
Salmonella Is a type of food poisoning bacteria, sometimes on undercooked meat.
Saturated fatty acids Have single bonds on the carbon chain.
Saturated fats Contain saturated fatty acids, are usually from animal sources and can be harmful to health.
Sauce Is a well-flavoured liquid that has been thickened.
Scissor snip Means to cut food with a pair of scissors instead of a knife.
Scoop Is a hollow-shaped spoon with a handle.
Scurvy Is a lack of vitamin C.
Seasonal foods Means foods that are only available at certain times in the year.
Secondary processing Refers to the process of changing primary food products into other types of products.
Segment Means to peel and pull apart, for example an orange.
Semolina Is a coarse-ground flour, which comes from wheat.
Sensory analysis Means testing food samples by tasting, touching and visual methods.
Sensory profile test Is used to obtain a detailed description of the appearance, taste and texture of a food product.
Sensory qualities Refers to the colours, flavours and textures of the dishes/menu.
Shallow frying Is a quick method of cooking where a small amount of fat is used to cook food in a frying pan.
Shape Means using a knife to create a shape. It also means to give a prepared dough its final shape before proving
Shortening Is the process in which fat coats the flour particles, preventing absorption of water resulting in a crumbly mixture.
Sieving Dry ingredients through a sieve adds air.
Simmering Refers to water that is heated to just below boiling point.
Skewer Is a long metal or wooden pin used to secure food on during cooking; to skewer is to hold together pieces of food using a metal or wooden pin.
Slaughter Means to kill animals for food.
Sodium chloride Is the proper name for ‘table salt’.
Soluble fibre Is dietary fibre that helps to reduce cholesterol.
Spina bifida Is a defect in the backbone that can occur in unborn babies if the mother did not eat enough folic acid during pregnancy.
Spore-forming bacteria Refers to bacteria that can produce spores, which protect the bacteria from high temperatures, acids and disinfectants. Normal reheating doesn’t destroy them.
Starch grains Are tiny particles of starch found in some carbohydrates.
Starchy foods Are foods high in starch, such as pasta, rice, potatoes and bread.
Starchy carbohydrates Are carbohydrates such as bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and chapatis.
Star profile Is one method of recording sensory analysis results.
Starter culture Is a small quality of harmless bacteria used to start the fermentation of yoghurt or cheese.
Steaming Is a method of cooking where food is cooked in the steam coming from boiling water.
Sterilisation Is a method of increasing the keeping quality of products by destroying all micro-organisms by heating food to a very high temperature.
Sterilised Means heated to kill bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
Stir-frying Is a quick method of cooking where small pieces of food are fast-fried in a small amount of oil in a wok.
Stroke   Is when the blood supply to the brain is cut off.
Sunshine vitamin Is another name for vitamin D.
Sustain Means to maintain and look after something, for example the environment.
Sustainable environment Is one where the demands placed on the environment can be met without reducing its ability to allow all people to live well, now and in the future.
Syneresis Usually refers to eggs; if overcooked, the proteins shrink as they coagulate and separate from the watery liquid.
Tagine Is a glazed earthenware pot with a distinctive lid. It is also used to describe the food cooked in it.
Tainting Is when the flavour/aroma of one food is changed by another stronger food.


Tandoor Is a clay oven heated by charcoal used to cook naan bread and tandoori dishes.
Target group Is the group you are planning recipes, meals or diets for.
Taste buds Detect sweet, sour, salt and bitter tastes.
Temperature danger zone Is the range of temperatures between 5°C and 63°C, where most bacteria can easily multiply.
Tenderising meat Is a process by which the tough muscle fibres are broken down in order to make the meat more tender to eat.
Thali Is a stainless-steel plate on which Indian food is served.
Thiamin Is vitamin B1.
Time plan Is a step-by-step written timed plan of all the stages of making the final dishes, ideally showing dovetailing where appropriate.
Tooth decay Refers to the acids in your mouth that attack tooth enamel.
Triglyceride Is the chemical name for a fat molecule.
Ultra heat treatment (UHT) Is a process of sterilisation using a high temperature for a very short time.
Umami Provides food with a savoury or meaty flavour.
Under-nutrition Is eating too little food or too little of a particular nutrient to meet dietary needs.
Unpasteurised milk Is milk that hasn’t been heat-treated to destroy bacteria.
Unprocessed foods Are natural foods that have not been refined, such as wholemeal flour, brown rice, fresh fruits and vegetables.
Unsaturated fatty acids Have a double bond on one or more carbon atoms.
Unsaturated fats Contain unsaturated fatty acids and are thought to be better for health.
‘Use by’ date Means that food must be consumed by this date to prevent food poisoning.
Vaccinated Refers to an injection to prevent infection.
Vegans Are vegetarians who eat no fish, no meat, meat products, eggs or dairy foods. Only plant foods are eaten.
Viscosity Is the thickness of a liquid.
Visible fat Is fat that can be clearly seen in food.
Vitamin drops Containing vitamins A, C and D are recommended for children aged 6 months to 5 years  in the UK.
Water intoxication Is drinking too much water.
Water-soluble vitamins Are the B group of vitamins and vitamin C, which dissolve in water.
Whisking At high speed adds air.
Whole grain Means the entire seed of the plant – the endosperm, germ and bran.
Wholemeal Means that the whole of the cereal grain (for example wheat) has been used nothing has been taken away.
Wok Is a shallow rounded frying pan.
Wraps Are fillings that are wrapped up in soft flat breads such as tortillas or pittas.
Yeast Is a tiny, single-celled fungus; a type of micro-during fermentation organism. It is used in bread-making, and it produces carbon dioxide


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